This course reviews the pathology of myocardial disease and the results of diagnostic testing indicating the condition. Topics include causes and medical history, signs and symptoms, EKGs, palpation, auscultation, echo and cath presentations.

  1. Definition
    • The inability of the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body ("forward failure") or the ability to do so only if the cardiac filling pressures are abnormally high ("backward failure").
    • Acute congestive heart failure is an emergent situation due to defects in systolic function
    • Chronic congestive heart failure is an ongoing reduction in both systolic and diastolic function

    Note: The incidence of heart failure is increasing in the United States. Over 400,000 new cases of heart failure are reported each year.

  2. Cardiac Etiologies
    1. Myocardial damage (most common cause, myocardial infarction, post-infarction VSD, ventricular wall rupture (septal and free walls)
    2. Acute Coronary Syndrome
    3. Pressure overload (e.g. systemic hypertension, valvular aortic stenosis)
    4. Volume overload (e.g. mitral regurgitation)
    5. Systolic Dysfunction
    6. Diastolic dysfunction (e.g. constrictive pericarditis)
    7. Pulmonary embolism
    8. Infectious heart disease
    9. Congenital abnormalities

The course include case studies, learning modules, and the proper steps in performing an examination.





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